The JIII was originally established under the name of "Association for the Protection of industrial Property" on May 5, 1904, both by Mr. Keigo Kiyoura, the them Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, and by Mr. Kinya Kume the then Director General of the Patent Office, for the purpose of developing and safeguarding industrial property.
In 1906, the Association was reorganized as a Corporate Juridical Person in order to solidify its foundation and expand its activity for promoting inventiveness, and in 1910, its was renamed "Imperial Institute of Inventions and Innovation."
In 1936, this institute was reorganized by unifying invention-encouraging organizations which then existed throughout Japan, and named H.I.H. Prince Takamatsu the Patron.
Since then, the institute has promoted encouraging activities for inventiveness by utilizing a nation-wide system as its largest organization for the encouragement of inventiveness. In 1947, the institute changed its name to the "Japan Institute of Invention and Innovation (Hatsumei Kyokai)" and has since 1968 been under the Patron of H.I.H. Prince Hitachi.